Fermented Chilli sauce recipe

Fermented Chilli sauce

Fermented Chilli sauce

Last weekend I started making fermented Chilli sauce with part of my harvest of Aji Habaneros and Bishops Crowns. The Chillies are now starting to ferment, and I am now starting to see carbon – dioxide bubbles floating up from the fermentation brine. It has taken about three days to reach this point. In another four to five days the sauces will be ready, and I will then blitz them into a Chilli sauce.Fermented-vegetables

Fermentation is a great way to preserve Chillies, whether making a hot sauce or Chilli pickles. It is a method that has been used for thousands of years and was certainly being done before canning and bottling was invented.Recently, there has been renewed interest in this ancient form of preservation. This is because people have realised that the end- product tastes great and is also really healthy. What’s more, it’s easy to do

The basic principle behind fermentation is that you allow the Chillies to ferment in a brine solution of about five percent salt in water. The fermentation process results in acetic acid being produced which serves to preserve the Chillies but also give them a pleasant sour taste. Once they have been preserved in this way, they can be kept either whole in the brine or alternatively the brine gets drained and the Chillies then get blended into a sauce.

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Fermented hot sauce. A complete guide

Fermented hot sauce

Making fermented hot sauces

Fermentation is a great way to preserve chillies, whether making a hot sauce or Chilli pickles. It is a method that has been used for thousands of years, and was certainly being done before canning and bottling was invented.  Recently, there has been renewed interest in this ancient form of preservation. This is because people have realised that the end product tastes great and is also really healthy. What's more, it's really easy to do

To make fermented hot sauce  follow the steps below:

  1. Top and tail ripe Chillies (about 900 grams) Cut them in half lengthwise  ( It is essential to only use ripe Chillies)
  2. Place into a suitable mason jar that can be closed with a fermentation seal. There should be about 25mm headspace once the chillies have been packed into the jar)
  3. Add any other ingredients like garlic (6 cloves)
  4. Bring 4  cups of filtered water to the boil in a pot.
  5. Add 3  tablespoons of salt to the boiling water. Stir until the salt has been dissolved
  6. Allow the brine to cool until it is just warm.
  7. Pour the brine over the chillies. Weigh them down with glass weights. (the chillies must be completely submerged)
  8. Seal the jar and keep it at room temperature. Fermentation will begin in a couple of days. You will notice bubbles beginning to appear.
  9. "Burp" the jar every other day by opening the fermentation seal. By doing this, you will release built-up gases.
  10. After two to three weeks, fermentation should have completed. The liquid in the jar should have a pleasantly sour taste.
  11. Wash the bottles you will use for the hot sauces, their caps, and any funnels you will use in hot soapy water.  Once washed, rinse with fresh water until all traces of detergent have been removed.
  12. Turn upside down to drain
  13. Place the drained bottles in an oven and heat to 100 degrees Celsius. Allow the bottles to dry in the oven
  14. in the meantime, pour the fermented chillies and juice into a blender. Blend until smooth
  15. Remove the bottles from the oven. Allow to cool, and then fill with fermented hot sauce
  16. Screw on the caps. Use as needed



Dips from around the world

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Is that a dip or dipping sauce?

In some parts of the world, a dip might mean something you immerse crisps or tortilla chips into while watching television. This type of dip can also be found at a cocktail party, typically surrounded by breadsticks, flatbreads or crudités,  etc. They are considered to be there for nothing more than for filling a gap. In other words, a snack.

In other parts of the globe, dips may instead be understood to mean something that accompanies a meal as part and parcel of a dish.  The purpose here is to add flavour to a dish that forms part of a meal, either as a starter or main course.

Comparing the types of dips found on snack tables at a cocktail party and those that come with a  Risjttafel illustrates the point well.

The idea with snack table dips is that the accompanying breadsticks or crudités, such as carrots or celery, will be immersed in the dip and then eaten (quite often, there and then).  At a Rijsstafel, individual skewered items like meat, seafood or cheese are dipped, and are more likely to be eaten while sitting at a table. Individual pieces are consumed from the skewers after they have been immersed in the dipping sauce.

More dipping sauces

The Rijsttafel style of dips with Chillies is commonly found throughout South East Asia. Indeed. The Rijsttafel had its origins in Indonesia when the country was under Dutch rule. Other countries that have this style of eating include (among many others) Indonesia, Korea, Thailand. Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos Examples of these sauces include  Nam Jim Jaew and Nam pla wan (from Thailand), Jaew bongDips with Chillies. Skewered chicken (from Laos), Cincalok (from Malaysia), Mắm nêm (from Vietnam), Sambal Badjak from Indonesia and  ssamjang from Korea

Dips with Chillies may be hot or cold. Hot dips with Chillies include Spicy Queso dip from Mexico and  Chicken Satay from Indonesia. While not traditionally spicy, there is no reason that Chip Shop curry sauce ( a hot dip  from the United Kingdom)  cannot be made with Chillies added

Hot Chips are dipped in various adding sauces  around Europe, but particularly in the Netherlands and Belgium. Andalusian (a Belgian sauce made with mayonnaise, tomatoes, garlic, shallots, and spice). Other typical Belgian Frites (hot chips) sauces are Samurai (made from mayonnaise, ketchup and harrisa) and Pili Pili ( a dipping sauce made with Chillies, with or without mayonnaise)


Some other iconic dipping sauces and dips with Chillies are closely associated with particular countries. Guacamole from Mexico, Sriracha from Thailand, Aji Verde from Peru and Molho apimentado from Brazil  are good examples

Spicy Hors d’oeuvres & Appetizers

Chillies as Chillies . Starter or Hors de hors de oeuvre,

What is the difference?

In a nutshell, nothing. Both are one and the same.  Both are small plates served at the beginning of a meal to whet the appetite for what is to follow. The term Hors d'oeuvre is French for before the work or the masterpiece. It is meant to portray that this is a course that comes before the chef's excellent main meal cooking. The term appetizer apparently appeared in both England and the USA in about 1860.  It was introduced for the only reason of having an English word for a term that had its origin in France.

Other terms with the same connotation are starters, amuse bouches and, amuse-gueules. A starter is simply a synonym for an hors de oeuvre or appetizer. Amuse bouche and Amuse gueles differ from these in that they are usually only one or two bite plates and are meant to delight or tantalize the palette. They are typically not ordered from a menu, but given for free as part of a bigger meal in fine dining restaurants. The idea behind this is to showcase the chefs style of cooking and what can be expected in the dishes that will follow.

International choices

Most countries have their own versions of these small plates. Some of the better-know appetizers with Chillies are:

  • Batata vada (India) – Spicy potato mash patty coated in chickpea flour and fried
  • Buffalo wings (Australia) – Breaded chicken wings that are fried and served with a hot sauce
  • Chicken Lollipops ( Goa, India). Chicken thighs coated in a spicy batter and fried
  • Jalapeno poppers- (USA) Jalapeno Chillies stuffed with cheese, wrapped in bacon and baked
  • Murtabak ( Singapore) – A spicy meat stuffed roti wrap
  • Cheese stuffed Chillies  ( Greece) Pickled Chillies stuffed with Feta cheese
  • Kinilaw (Philippines)- Raw seafood like ceviche, but marinated in vinegar
  • Matbucha ( Middle East) – A spicy tomato and chilli salad
  • Ceviche – ( Peru) Seafood marinated in citrus and chillies
  • Queso flameado (Mexico)  Melted cheese with chillies
  • Samosas (India) – Fold over pastries filled with spicy meat or vegetables
  • Chaat (India) – Fried dough, puffed or bread fritters with other spicy ingredients
  • Kimchi  - Korean spicy fermented cabbage

And the list continues. There are literally thousands of small plates with Chillies as appetizers from all around the world.  Great fun can be had by turning a selection of these into a meal that will not only entertain your friends, but also feed them very well indeed.

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Hot Chilli sauces

Standing out from the crowd

Hot sauces can be broadly classified into groupings that identify where they are from and in which style they are made.  Louisiana hot sauce, for example, can be identified as being a Tabasco type sauce that is thin and peppery. On the other hand, Caribbean sauces are generally made with hot Chillies like Scotch bonnets and are sometimes combined with fruit like pineapple or mango.

Similarly, many Unusual hot sauces sauces from South America, like Chimichurri from Argentina and Pebre from  Chile, have a strong coriander (cilantro) note.  Yet others are in the styles of Northern African like Tunisian Harissa, Central African Urusenda from Rwanda, South East Asian  Sambal Badjak from Indonesia, Middle Eastern – Shatta from Palestine, Aji Amarillo sauces from Peru and Asian sauces like Chiu Chow from China. Not to mention the whole array of sauce from North America, including Mexico, India and many others.

From the above, it is undoubtedly clear that there are many sauces out there from all parts of the globe. Some, though, are just downright interesting and unique, making them worthy of a particular comment. Many of these sauces can be made at home, but where the ingredients are too difficult to get hold of, it may be best to buy the finished article.

Distinctive  hot sauces

Sauces with character

Some hot sauces stand out from the crowd. Many sauces are just remakes of each other . The main  attraction is normally their attractive packaging. Not so with these bad boys.

Hawaiian Pepper water.

A hot sauce found on virtually every table in Hawaii. It is made with water, vinegar, crushed garlic, ginger, chillies, salt and pepper. This can be quite a salty sauce, and is used by some to replace salt. In Hawai, this sauce is made with a Birds-eye Chilli called Hawaiian Chili Pepper, about the size of a 22 calibre bullet. It has a Schoville rating of between 5000o and 100000 SHU


This sauce or relish is popular in the Mahgreb region more as a marinade or finisher of dishes than a condiment. It is mild in heat, but can be made hotter if required. Its ingredients are coriander ( cilantro), flat-leaf parsley, garlic, cumin, preserved lemons, fresh chillies or paste, paprika, olive oil, salt, and pepper. It served mainly with fish dishes, but also with meat.

Shito hot sauce.

Shito means pepper in Ga, a Ghanian language spoken in Accra, the capital of Ghana. It is a reasonably hot sauce made with vegetable oil, ginger, dried fish and crustaceans, garlic, tomatoes, Chillies and other spices. A recipe and guidance to make this hot sauce can be found here.

Rica Rica.

A spicy hot sauce from Indonesia. It is made with red and green Birds - eye Chillies, shallots, garlic, coconut oil, lemongrass, salt, pepper and lime juice. It is a pungent sauce that is served with barbecued and grilled meats, poultry and seafood. Easy to make recipe here

Green Habanero sauce.

A hot sauce made with young Habanero Chillies. This is a hot sauce that is mildly pungent, with a tropical undertone.  Its other ingredients are carrots, garlic, apple cider vinegar, water, salt and pepper.

Green Habaneros are not as pungent as they are when they are when ripe. These means that sauce is relative mild compared to other Habanero sauces. Green Habanero sauce is fantastic with grilled poultry and meat. It is also good when served with grilled vegetables. It is relatively easy to make this sauce. if you have access to green Habaneros

Spicy Yuzu sauce.

Yuzu is a citrus fruit grown in China and Japan. It tastes like grapefruit and lemons with a sharp, sour taste.  The zest of this fruit is combined with vinegar and salt to make a great tasting Chilli sauce. Fantastic with fish and as a general condiment.   This is a straightforward sauce to make. Follow our recipe for this.

 Nam prik pao.

Thai hot sauce made with canola oil, garlic, shallots, dried chillies, shrimp paste, fish sauce, tamarind paste, sugar, lime juice and water. Great served soups like Tom Yum Goong and Thai noodle dishes. For a great recipe to make this hot sauce follow this link

Wasabi Green tea hot sauce.

An unusual hot sauce made by combining purified water with soybean oil, Wasabi rhizomes, Jalapenos, sugar, vinegar, tomatillos, lime juice, green teas, garlic and onion powder, coriander, mustard powder and turmeric. It is not a pungent Chilli sauce, but is packed with flavour that goes well with sushi. This is not a sauce that can easily be made at home.

Others include fermented sauces, Aji Amarillo sauce with peanuts, Avocado chilli sauce and various hot sauces with tequila and bourbon.

Final thoughts

While these are general styles for classification, there are sauces from a particular region where there is crossover in terms of style.  Some Brazilian hot sauces (e.g. Mohlo Malagueta), which theoretically falls into South America, can be compared with Piri Piri sauce from Africa and Portugal. In the same vein, some African-style sauces can be compared with those from South America. This is all due to the history of these regions, which led to fusion cuisine.

This list is by no means comprehensive, but provides a certain idea of how broad the choice is for sauces. Many are just a variation on the basic vinegar, garlic, salt and Chillies. Besides the differences obtained by using different varieties of Chillies, the basic concept stays the same.  Many of these are marketed under eye-catching names that convey what they are. Typically, these will include very hot sauces ( super hot Chillies like Carolina reapers),  mild wing sauce, sweet Chilli sauces, etc.


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Gun powder spice

Making gunpowder spice blend. Indian cooking wit Chillies

Gun powder spice mix

Gunpowder is a blend of finely ground rice, lentil and chickpea flour and spices.  Use it to sprinkle over foods to give them the “magic bullet” of spicing. They are a  favourite in South India, where the recipes are closely guarded secrets. . They are an everyday seasoning in many households, where they get sprinkled over many other foods, including Dosas ( pancake made from a fermented batter of rice, chickpea flour and Idlis (spicy rice cakes).  Another important use for gunpowder is to sprinkle it over rice that has ghee ( clarified butter) added to it

Gunpowder is a spicing that you will want to have as part of your Indian cooking arsenal. Where at all possible make it at home – for it to be at its best

To make the  gunpowder spice mix, you will need the following

Ingredients for the gunpowder spice mix

  • Black lentils ( Urad dal) – 170 grams
  • Split Chickpeas ( Chana dal) – two tablespoons
  • Idli rice – 85 grams
  • Black peppercorns – two teaspoons
  • Whole cinnamon – one stick
  • Dried Kashmiri Chillies – seven whole
  • Dried curry leaves – 15 whole
  • Green cardamom pods – three
  • Sesame seeds – one teaspoon

Salt – to personal preference

Making the Gunpowder spice mix

When making this spice blend, you will need o dry roast the ingredients to add flavour to the proteins, so that spices release their essential oils. Be careful whilst doing this. Keep the heat of the pan at medium heat and continue t shake whilst roasting to ensure heat is distributed evenly for even roasting.

  1. Place a large frying pan on a cooking plate on the stove, set to medium
  2. Add the lentils, rice and split chickpeas. Dry roast for two to three minutes. Remove from the pan and allow cooling.
  3. In the same pan, add the Kashmiri Chillies. Gently dry roast for 3o seconds.
  4. Remove from the pan and add to the roasted proteins and dried curry leaves. Mix together and allow the flavour to intermingle for about thirty minutes.
  5. Add the remaining ingredient  to the proteins, Kashmiri Chillies and Curry leave
  6. Place everything into a grinder or a pestle and mortar.
  7. Grind to a powder. It should be slightly coarse, rather than fine
  8. The place requires amount in a bowl or shaker for immediate use.
  9. Place balance in an airtight container
  10. Use as required.


Additional ingredients like garlic granules or dried coconut flakes can be added before grinding. Doing this will make another variation

Gunpowder is very good when added to cooked and stir-fried vegetables (e.g. brinjal)  in the same way as Chilli flakes might be used.  Also great on scrambled or boiled  eggs and, with cheese

Read more :    How Chillies are used in India

What is Korean Bansang?

Korean spicy side dishes

A selection banchan ( side dishes)

Banchan or bansang is a Korean term for a selection of side dishes that are served together with rice as part of a meal.  The side dishes are typically placed in the centre of the table for all to share. A basic bansang ( side dish meal ) setting will consist of rice, soup, gochujang ( Korean red chilli paste), soya sauce, Jjigae ( a spicy Korean stew) or Bulgogi ( Korean grilled meat ) and Kimchi ( fermented cabbage). Many other banchan ( sides) may be added for special occasions

In addition to the above, the following are a selection of these side dishes with Chillies if you wanted to make your own bansang

Chamchijeon – Spicy tuna pancakes

Sssamjang – a spicy dipping sauce for vegetables and meat

Oi Muchim – Spicy cucumber salad

Mu Saengchae -  Korean radish salad with Gochugaru ( Korean chilli flakes)

Myulchi Bokkeum –  Fried anchovies and nuts with chillies

Dubu Jorim  -  Spicy braised Tofu

While all of the above are spicy in some form or the other, dishes like  Sukju namul  ( seasoned beansprouts), Hobak Bokkeum ( fried zucchini), Gyeranjjim ( steamed eggs ) and a host of other non-spicy banchan can be served

A bansang can consist of anything up to 12 dishes . In Korea, the number  of banchan served at sitting is denoted by a serving name. Six banchan would, for example, be a 6 cheop bansang and a twelve dish meal would be a 12 cheop etc.

Masissge Deuseyo !



Best ways to use Chillies

Link to cooking with chillies index page
Cooking with chillies

Ways in which Chillies are used

So how are Chillies used in cooking around the world?  The simple answer is – in many, many ways!  Cooking with Chillies is done daily by a sizeable part of the world's population in a lot of different styles. So it just stands to reason, with so much practising going on, someone somewhere has tried at least one of many possible ways of preparing them.

The following list is a start to understanding what some of the possibilities are.

Hot sauces and relishes

Almost every country where Chillies are eaten has its own special hot sauce or  Chilli relish. Peri-peri sauce from Portugal, Sriracha from Thailand, Tabasco sauce from the USA and  Chili pepper water from Hawaii are examples of hot sauces like this. Chillies are frequently combined with vinegar, garlic, lemon juice, fruit, and other ingredients to make these  sauces.  The ingredient combinations are then commonly cooked, and blended. Methods like fermentation and barrel ageing are used to enhance flavour further.

Cooking with Chillies. Hot sauces

Relishes are generally made by combining Chillies with Bell peppers and other ingredients like tomatoes, ginger, garlic and spices. They are thicker than hot sauces and are generally spooned rather than poured over food.  Relishes  are particularly popular in Eastern Europe. Adjika and Pindjur from Georgia and Bulgaria respectively are examples of this type of sauce. They are regarded as specialities of their home countries. Another example is Ajvar from North Macedonia.

In South East Asia, hot sauces can be used as  condiments, but also as  dipping sauces.  Typically, meat or vegetables on skewers or spring rolls  will be dipped into these sauces . Examples include Nam Prik Poa from Thailand and Sambal Balado from Indonesia. In countries like Thailand, Indonesia., Malaysia and Vietnam ingredients like galangal, lemon grass, fish sauce, shrimp paste and lime juice are used   to make these sauces.

Jams and Chutneys

Chillies are typically combined with ingredients like apples, tomatoes, and other vegetables/ fruit to make fantastic jams and condiments served with food.   Chilli and tomato jam is not only used to spread on bread, but also with roast meats.

Chutneys are typically served with curry  or as a  dip with flatbreads like rotis, chappatis or naans.


Chillies make great pickles when aged in vinegar and other spices. A great advantage of making a Chilli pickle is that the vinegar utilised for the pickling can be used to flavour drinks like Bloody Marys and add flavour to stews like Feijoada.

A great example of  a fermented pickle /side dish made with Chillies is Kimchi from Korea. It is made with Chinese cabbage, diacon radishes and spring onions

Vinegar and oils

Chillies are steeped in oil or vinegar, so that the Chilli's flavour is imparted to the liquid or oil. These are then used to add flavour to dishes like pizza ( with Chilli oil ) and collards, where Chilli vinegar is added for a  great spicy taste.

Another use for Chilli oil is for frying  onions, garlic, and other  spices when starting a curry or other spicy stew. All of these are really easy and effective ways of cooking with Chilllies.

Roasted or stuffed

Milder varieties (sometimes pungent)  Chillies   like Bell peppers, Poblanos, Cubanelles and Jalapenos are frequently used more as  a vegetable rather  than as a spice. They are typically stuffed with a filling consisting of cheese, rice or meat, and then baked in the oven.  They may also be charred or  roastedCooking with Chillies. Stuffed Chillies  before baking,  to add flavour.  An example of a hot Chilli being used in this way is the Rocoto from Peru.

In  Brazil and Mexico, Chillies are stuffed, coated in breading  or batter, and then fried. Dishes like Rellenos and  Crispy Brazilian Chilli poppers are all examples of this fantastic way of cooking Chillies. Padron Chillies from Spain and Rocotos  from Peru are prepared by frying the whole Chillies  in olive oil  until they soften and blister.  Fried whole  Chilles dishes are typically served as appetizers

In the USA, Jalapenos are stuffed with cheese, wrapped in bacon, and then baked in the oven ( Jalapeno poppers). Similarly, in the UK, prawns are stuffed in Chillies ( prawn stuffed Chillies) and then also  baked. These dishes are commonly served as a  starter as part of a dinner party or seafood evening. Another great way of cooking with Chillies

As a dry spice

Hotter varieties like Cayenne and Birds-eye Chillies are used to make Chilli powders, flakes, and rubs.  for everyday use.  Superhot cultivars  like Ghost peppers and Scotch bonnets are also ground into powders and flakes for use in Carribean style cooking.Cooking with Chillies. Chillies as a dry spice Urfa biber , a dried Chilli with a burgundy colour when dried, is an upcoming favourite amongst chefs. It has its origins in Turkey , but has since started becoming popular around the world.

Chilli powders are used extensively to make curries and other spicy dishes like Chili. Chilli flakes are typically used to add flavour to grilled meats and vegetables. They are also great sprinkled over  cheese, eggs and dips.

Barbeque rubs are made by blending spices with ingredients like sugar , salt, garlic powder, onion powder, black pepper and other spices.  This spice is then rubbed into meat before it is barbecued over an open fire or in a kettle barbeque.  Rubs are also used to smoke and slow cook meat. These methods of cooking are particularly popular in the USA . Another great way of introducing flavour when cooking with Chillies

Stir fries

Stir fries are a category of cooking with Chillies that requires a special mention. In countries like Thailand, China, Korea and Indonesia, countless dishes are made using Chillies. They are used both as a vegetable and a spice to make these dishes. Some of the more popular stir fries from these countries include Pad Thai and stir-fried noodles with Sai Au from Thailand, spicy fried rice from China, Nasi Goreng from Indonesia and Kimchi Bokkuembap ( kimchi fried rice from Korea). Other countries where stir fries  are popular with Chillies include Vietnam, Malaysia and  Mexico

As a vegetable Cooking with Chillies. Raw Chillies

Fresh chillies are used to add piquancy and flavour to curries, goulashes, soups, salads, and spicy stews.   Typically, when being used like this, Chillies are there to perform the role of a vegetable and also to provide piquancy to the dish. This is an important element in cooking with Chilllies, especially in curries

Additionally, they are chopped and eaten raw (typically green Chillies)  with curries, either on their own or as an ingredient in sambal  


Chillies are used to make fried snacks like  Punungulu ,  Pakoras, Bhajis , and Samosas from India Chilli bites from South Africa and Tod man pla from Thailand. Chillies are also used to make a wide selection of fritters in countries like  Vietnam and Indonesia.


So, cooking with Chillies is very diverse. The above are but a start to exploring how  Chillies are used in cooking.  Consider, for instance (amongst many other uses)  cheesemaking, baking, desserts and making spicy drinks. The list goes on.

Join us in our voyage of discovery into the fascinating world of  Chillies.

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Theme meals with Chillies

Introducing Weymouth 51 Chilli sauces

Dorset Chilli Festival

When I met David Tamlyn of Weymouth51 earlier this year at the at the Dorset Chilli festival I sensed there was an interesting story to be told about this interesting character in the UK Chilli world.  As a blogger on the Chilli Workshop, I am always interested to find out how Chilli sauce businesses came into being.  To me it is a fascinating subject.

What initially caught my eye was the interesting names he had for his Chilli sauces, including Rhubarb and Custard, Tutti Fruity and Scorpion on the beach. Never mind the likes of Rockfish Oyster   Drizzle, Allotment Special and The Kicker.  These names really intrigued me, so I had to find out more. To do just that I asked David if I could interview him. He agreed and what I found out didn’t fail to disappoint.

I learnt that Rhubarb and Custard got its name when David (who grows his own Chillies) noticed that a mixture of yellow and red Chillies (Yellow Jigsaws, Jamaican Yellow, Yellow Trinidad Perfume, Lemon Aji and Red Naga Chillies) he had picked to make sauce and placed in a wheelbarrow looked remarkably like the dessert. Thus, the name was borne Read more

Pickling Chilli recipe

Pickling this years Chilli crop

Today I made some pickled Chillies with a variety of Chillies that I harvested as part of this year’s Chilli crop. It is a good way of preserving Chillies and was  extremely easy to do. Having done this, besides pickling Chillies it now means that out of this years harvest I have been able to make Chilli powder, fermented Chillies and will shortly making hot sauce. I have also frozen quite a few.

All that I needed  for the pickling was the Chillies, some vinegar, water, sugar, salt, spices and the mason jars that I used to do the pickling.  I also needed a pot , a  cutting board and a sharp knife.

Once I had all of these together , the first step in the pickling process  was to sterilise the jars. I did this by washing them in warm soapy water and then rinsing them in fresh warm water, I then let them air dry.

Once this had been done, I placed them in an oven that I had preheated to 100 hundred degrees Celsius for ten minutes. This will have killed off any harmful bacteria. In addition to this, the use of vinegar in the  pickling process  helps to keep the Chillies free  from  air borne bacteria like Botulism. The acidity in vinegar deters the growth of Botulism spores which otherwise might have been a problem; as Chillies are not acidic in themselves

The next step was to remove the stalks from the three hundred grams of  mixed Chillies I was using  I then sliced them in half and packed them tightly into two mason jars. One jar is 500 millilitres and the other 350. In both instances the jars were filled to eighty percent of their total volume. I did this because it is essential that the Chillies are completely submerged in vinegar to prevent spoilage The only thing that was then needed was to make the pickling solution

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